The olfactory families
Citrus or Hesperidic
The term hesperidic comes from the name of the legendary Hesperides, guardians of the Garden of Golden Apples, which according to legend were actually oranges. It is a fresh and lively accord, an optimistic and invigorating one.
The citrus facet belongs to the head notes and is characterized by an extreme volatility.
Moreover, it is the principal component of eau de cologne, energizer eau and eau fraiche, refreshing fragrances par excellence.
Among the most popular ingredients, along with Mediterranean fresh fruits (bergamot, orange, tangerine, grapefruit and lemon), there are also exotic components such as yuzu, kumquat and lime and woody ones such as sandal and citron.

See the “pioneers” and the “contemporaries” of the Citrus family (pdf - 825,0 KB)
A fragrance is defined floral when it is characterized by the notes of one single flower or a floral bouquet. Along with the citrus one, it is the most ancient facet of perfume and represents the effort to bring nature and its scents back to an olfactory formula to be stored in a bottle.
The floral facet belongs to the heart notes.
Once exclusively for women, today it also characterizes several men’s creations. Jasmine, rose, tuberose, iris, lily of the valley, honeysuckle, ylan-ylang, orange-flower, violet, gardenia, mimosa….the list is almost endless and soul of the most productive family for women’s perfume..

See the “pioneers” and the “contemporaries” of the Floral family (pdf - 643,5 KB)
Imported in Europe by crusaders, Cyprus water perfume was a big success due to the high concentration of patchouly and fragrant resins used for its preparation.
This sunny, cheerful and sensual atmosphere was Francois Coty’s inspiration when in 1917 he created the fragrance called Chypre, first fragrance created with an industrial procedure rather than handcrafted one. The base accord of Coty’s perfume was characterized by an apparent disharmony due to the bright and balanced transparence of bergamot and the sinful accents of patchouli, labdanum and oak moss.
Still today, the result is considered a concentration of elegance and high quality perfumery. Over time the chypré facet has undergone several changes, but the leitmotif has remained unvaried: it starts with a citrus note, followed by a dominant floral heart, closes with a mixture of wood, musk and lichen which recalls woods and wild nature. The compositions belonging to the chypré family are usually for women and dedicated to a complex and intense femininity.

See the “pioneers” and the “contemporaries” of the Chypre family (pdf - 634,6 KB)
In French fougère means “fern” but there is no trace of fern among the components of these fragrances. It simply recalls green spaces and scented woods.
The name does not suggest any identification with the raw materials used, like for the citrus and floral family, but refers to the legendary fragrance created by Houbigant in 1882: FougèreRoyale. Along with the authentic union of aromatic (lavender), woody (vetiver, citron and sandal) and green notes, the peculiarity of this fragrance consisted in the use of synthetic notes, such cumarin (or Tonka bean) which recalls herbs and hay mixed to blonde tobacco.
Since then, generations of male fragrances have been inspired by this accord, customizing the base accord with the addition of one or more aromatic substances.
The fougére family mainly consists of male fragrances.

See the “pioneers” and the “contemporaries” of the Fougère family (pdf - 638,6 KB)
It is one of the most various and complex accords. It consists of fragrances, rich and multi-faceted in composition, with only one denominator: head notes are discrete,  not invasive, as if they wanted to be unnoticed to leave room for bottom notes.
The characters of this family are undoubtedly the golden balsams, animal essences, precious resins and odorous woods which, already 5000 years ago, were used for their ability to release enchanted scents, when burned.
The origin of the term perfume comes actually from here: from Latin "per fumum", literally through the smoke. Myrrh, cinnamon, vetiver…..but the oriental family also includes raw materials which can be divided into subcategories, such as vanilla with its gourmand, or ambergris of animal origin, but classified as oriental for the roundness and persistence of its aroma.

See the “pioneers” and the “contemporary” of the Oriental family (pdf - 1.446,1 KB)